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The culture of Uganda is made up of a diverse range of ethic groups. Lake Kyoga is the northern boundary for Bantu speaking people; they live in the East, central and southern Africa. In Uganda the culture is made up of ethnic group .Lake Kyoga forms the north boundary which is surrounded by a big range of ethnic groups of people.
The Bantu speaking people dominate the East, central and southern Africa. Including the Baganda and several other tribes. The Bantu speaking people entered through the south part of Uganda by the end of first century.
They developed kingdoms by the 15th and 16th century after the Uganda independence in 1962, there many in number consisting two-third of the Uganda’s population.
The Bantu people are classified as Eastern or the western Bantu. The Eastern region includes the Baganda who speak Luganda and the Basoga while the western parts speak Batoro, Banyoro, Banyakole and many smaller populations in Uganda.
In the North, there Acholi and Lango speaking people, they speak the Nilotic languages. In the eastern part of Uganda there Iteso who are the largest about 8% and Karamojong with 12%, they speak Nilotic language, there central sudanic languages spoken by 6%, they stay in the parts of northwest.
The lugbara are 8% in total and the Madi people who are the largest of the groups they stay in the central Sudan they stretch from chad to Sudan. Uganda has the Nubians who are descents of Sudan; there are descendants of Sudan military recruits who came in the late 19th century as part of the colonial army.
While the Gisu people who speak Lumasaba a language close to the Luhya of Kenya region, the Gishu people live in the eastern part of Uganda are parts of the Bantu speaking people who live in the slopes of Mt. Elgon. There pygmies people who live in the rainforest of western Uganda.
In 19th century, English was the colonial administration .Although after independence; it became an official language, which was used in commerce, government, education, news papers, radio, Television.
The history of Uganda and Ethnic Relations.
Colonization ended in 1962, when the colonization period ended in the 1885, there was little that the country was headed for political and social upheaval, but Uganda was a model o stability and progress. There was no legacy of conflict the white settler class attempted to trade cash crop economy and at that time there was no legacy of conflict.
The African famers grew cotton and coffee that brought finance education, higher standard of living that leads to high expectation for the Future of the country.
When Uganda received its independence there was no struggle against the British, who had set a timetable for withdrawal of local groups who had organized nationalist movement.
There religious and Ethnic divisions as historical enmities and rivalries contributed to the country’s disintegration in 1970s.There was a wide gulf between Nilotic speakers in the north and Bantu speakers in the south and an economic division between pastoralists in the drier rangelands of the west and north, in the lake side regions.
There was historical division between centralization to rule ancient kingdoms of Africa and kingship politics. The kingdoms controlled land, the time of colonization; the south had railways, cash crops, Christian mission education, and more expenses of other regions.
There were religious groups that lost grounds in the past, such as the Muslims at the end of the 19th century by Christians allied to British colonialism.
After independence, there were conflicting local nationalisms. The Buganda’s large population, that self-proclaimed among other Ugandan people.
Nubians shared little sense of identification with other groups. The people of Zaire and Sudan became embroiled in civil wars in the 1960s and 1970s.
FOOD AND ECONOMY
Uganda has different food in daily life, except a few people who live in urban centers, they produce their own food. Most people of Uganda eat two meals a day, lunch and supper. With breakfast they have a cup of tea or porridge. In Uganda women and girls are in charge of preparing meals, the boys and men above fifteen years and above are not allowed to sit in the kitchen, the kitchen is separate from the main house.
The cooking style is done in an open wood fire. They have popular dishes including Matooke as the most staple food eaten and made from bananas ,millet bread, cassava, sweet potatoes, chicken and beef stews, freshwater fish other types of food they include white potatoes,yams,corn,cabbage,pumkin,tomatoes,millet,sorghum,groundnuts,beans,goat meat and milk. There a number of fruits including lemon, oranges, papayas, mangoes, pineapples these are all grown and consumed.
Waragi is the national drink, made out of banana gin. There Restaurants’ in the city centers such as Kampala the capital city of Uganda they serve local foods.
Most food in Uganda is produced domestically. Uganda is one of the leading countries exporting foodstuffs including fish, corn, fish products, coffee and tea. The environment provides good grazing land for cattle, goats and sheep. Agriculture is the most important sector of the growing economy, offering employment opportunities to 80%.
The production of produce is organized by farmers ,small holders an cooperatives. The small stock holders started in 1960s and 1970s although they declined as a result of civil conflict.
In the 1980s, the government provided aid to farmers, thou hundreds of ranches were restocked with cattle.
The Rivers, swamps and lakes cover about 20% of the land; fishing is an important rural industry.
Uganda’s currency is shillings.
Land Tenure and Property.
The country was a patchwork of districts administration subdivided into provinces and counties
In 1900, Uganda retained its Monarchy as a result of treaty with modified version of government and freehold land tenure. The land was divided between protectorate government, Kabaka (king), tribal notables and chiefs. The mailo land became an important element in the colonial form economy.
Uganda has a long history of social, laws governing the land tenure, although customary, freehold, leasehold continue to exist.
The government of Uganda has simplified the land tenure system. As a major development in the process has been inclusion in the constitution of 1995.women to own land this requires further consideration.
The Major services and goods produced are foodstuffs and cash crops for exportation, although coffee is the major crop exported. In 1970s and 1980s during this period Uganda escaped famine because of a big number of people who resorted to subsistence cultivation.
The subsistence farming and commercial operated in nonmonetary and monetary sectors to present the government with organization and taxation problems. In 1980 Uganda it was about 44% of gross domestic product.
In 1986 during the period when government seized power, the industrial production was negligible, this consisted the processions of crops and textiles production wood, cement, paper and chemicals.
Industries were a small part of GDP in the late 1980s,operating in the early 1970s.under the president of Uganda Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, some industrials rejuvenation, although allot was damaged during the civil war to the industrial infrastructure.
Uganda has a sugar industry that was rehabilitated through joint ventures, this involved private sector including the government of Uganda. In 1990s there was refining capacity of at least 140,000tons of sugar. There other rehabilitation industries including bear brewing, tobacco, cotton and cement. And 4% of adults worked in the industries by 1990s. In 1990s there was a 14% growth of industries.
In 1998, the country exported products worth $575 million. The main export commodities were coffee, fish and fish products, cotton, tea and corn. The countries receiving most of these products were Germany, Spain, The Netherlands, Italy, and France. There many imports including basic manufactured goods, chemicals, machinery and transport equipment.
Division of labor.
During the mid 1990s, there was labor force which estimated to be about 8.5 million, there was only 85% working on agriculture,4% in industry and 10% in service sector. The jobs in agriculture are given according to preferences.
There no castes, there is a relatively high degree of social inequality. In the mid-1990s, with 55% of population living below the poverty line. The top 10% is owned by one-thousands of the available wealth, the bottom list is owned by 3%.wealth distribution is governed by class position. The richest people live in the city especially the capital city of Uganda, Kampala.
Symbols of social stratification
Is governed primarily by ones level of education, status from employment. English is the main communication language, the people dress in traditional wears and others tend to dress in a modern western fashion.
Government, the constitution of 1995, when the power was in the National Resistance council with about 276 members. The Executive powers are held by the president of Uganda, who is directly elected for five years term, the government introduced the movement system with agreement network from capital to rural areas.
The National Resistance Movement, the party is led by President Museveni. There other parties that exist ,although there not allowed to sponsor candidates, the Ugandan people’s congress(UPC),The Democratic Party(DP),the conservative Party(CP)
In 1986, the current government achieved many positions through combination of hard work, corruption and many more.
SOCIAL PROBLEMS AND CONTROL
After the Victoria of the ruling power, the National Resistance Army, the Army of the government was responsible for internal security.
The police force reorganized the security organs to enforce law and order in all district areas of the country.
There two continuing wars the Lord’s Resistance Army which are fighting against the guerrillas who are based in Sudan. In 1995, the government of Uganda was able to establish the legal system which was based in customary law. The government of Uganda has a court, the court of appeal and high court; both the judges in the courts are appointed by the president of Uganda, Yoweri Kaguta Museveni.
Uganda has an army, air force and navy. The National Resistance army has number of about seventy thousand troops.
Recruitment, there is no fixed term of service, for both women and men who serve in the army. In 1999, the Uganda military force supported the rebel forces in the civil wars in the Democratic Republican of Congo.
SOCIAL WELFARE AND CHANGE PROGRAMS
In 1987, the Ugandan government launched a four-year Development plan and Rehabilitation to restore the nation’s production, especially in industry, economic infrastructure, agriculture, transportation, water services and electricity
There was major funding in transportation, followed by agriculture, tourism and industry, social infrastructure, energy and mining services. The level of economic recovery by 1990s led to the provision of new loans, such as new currencies and high limited economic progress.
NON GOVERNMNT ORGANIZATION AND OTHER ASSOCIATIONS.
Political conflict was under the Milton Obote and Idi Amin in 19970s and early 1980s; this led to the Non government Organization (NGO), foreign and indigenous NGos.
Indigenous NGO where concerned with development ,political goals, social that flooded in the mid 1980s.For groups of traditional disadvantages people such as physically disabled people and women, NGOs have provided guaranteed political represented at every level of society.
GENDER ROLES AND STATUSES
There was division of labor by Gender, Traditionally women’s role were subordinates of two men despite the substantial economic social responsibilities of women in traditional Uganda societies.
In the traditional society women were taught to abid by the wishes of their brothers, fathers, husbands and other men in public life. During 1990s, the women in rural areas of Buganda were expected to kneel while speaking to their elders. However women are given the responsibility of child care, growing cash crops agriculture.
Ugandans always recognized women as religious leaders who sometimes led a revolt, which could over through political order by men.
Women could own land and influence political decisions which were made by men as well as cultivating cash crops.
The Relative status of women and men.
In some areas in the 1970s and 1980s, political violence had a heavy toll on women. There was Economic hardship in homes, where women and children were not given the responsibility of economic opportunities.
The women’s work became time consuming; this caused the reduction access to hospitals, schools, markets, infrastructure and many more.
However, some Ugandan the war regimes strengthened their positions in schools, positions, as well as the president of Uganda pledged to remove the discrimination against women.
Women were recognized active during the civil war of National Resistance Army. The government decreed that one woman would represent each district on National Resistance Council and the government owned the Uganda commercial Bank established rural Farm loans.
Marriage, Family and kinship
There was acquisition of wives with family prosperity, and this accomplished through the exchange of bride wealth. During the 1950s bride wealth was set at five cows and a number of goats. The payment of bride wealth is a sign that men rule women at home and in families.
Polygamous marriages have some aspects of male dominance but also have given women an opposition male. A man can give his senior wife the first one to be married a status of a male this allows her to take same responsibilities as a man towards other wives. However, women in polygamous marriages left some women/wives without legal rights to inherit anything in family after divorce or becoming a widow.
The family is a kin group. Where by men have authority in the family, tasks are divided among older girls and women .Women are always dependent on males in family as next of kin family.(father, brother and husband).The Dependence on men proves that women survived on men and for their children.
Land reforms are a continuing aspect of constitution debate. There was a new land policy were the constitution commission and draft constitution where submitted to the president in the late 1992 thou they were little issues of women to take rights and own land.
Although women could contribute towards agriculture, their tenure rights were weak. There was determination and protection of properties rights have become important issues as a result of civil war and impact of AIDS. However, the state recognizes properties through customary law.
According to the law, a wife is entitled to 15% of the husbands properties after his death. Majority in the country men inheritances the wife’s properties, while in culture a woman doesn’t inherit from the husband at all cost.
In other words, there is inheritance, and a lot of conflicts between culture written modern law and unwritten modern law, the law of culture would precedence.
Many people of different clans, lineages, marriages, provide daily framework of daily life and access significant resources. Farming is a family enterprise; labor and land are inherited through kinship.
Infant care. The care of infants at home is taken by older girls and women in families.
CHILD EDUCATION AND REARING
Mothers, give birth to an average number of seven children during the 1990s, the use of family planning was very low which led to a higher increase of child birth. Well the death of child birth is common place with a 90% .Boys are more likely to be educated more than girls who are educated at a secondary level than girls at a primary level. A three-quarter of people who are literate are men out of the 90% in Uganda.
The education system was established in 1922, Makerere university in Kampala which was the first collage in East Africa.
The role of the government was to train people for government employment in 1980s; it continued to expand with collages of arts, medicine which has served to over five thousand students. In the early 1990s the university had about 9 thousand students. Well the Islamic university of Mbale opened in 1988.
The collage was opened to provide education services to the English speaking students a cross Africa. In 1989, another university opened up in Mbarara, with curriculum designed to serve the rural development needs.
There development plans for higher education largely on international private donors. Perceiving as a national development.
In Uganda the norm of greeting is by shaking of hands the casual dressing code is considered for evening and day time. When it’s time for meals, their served on the mat and all family members are supposed to sit together and enjoy the meal as a family.
In case there visitors or family members their always allowed to join in with other family members to enjoy the meal .during the meal everyone is supposed to be quite unless asked a question. One is not supposed to live the room well others are still eating. Supposed to stretch the arm or lean on the left arm, this shows a sign of disrespect.
After the meal every person gives a compliment or thanks the person who cooks who is normal the mother and also to the father who bought the food which is not normal there because most of the food is got direct from the gardens.
Religious beliefs16% are Muslims ,one-third Catholics, one-third protestant, the 18% believe in local religions such as various millenarian religions. There is s coexisted for more centuries and many people have combined elements of both types. There other regions such as spirits and witch craft.
Religious Practical implications, such as membership has influenced employment, education and social advancement. Religious practitioners provide a range of benefits for the flowers. The religious leaders provide help to the needy, achievements. Establishing and allowing different rulers/new leaders to mobilize political change.
HOLY PLACES AND RITUALS
In Bantu –speaking societies, many local religions always include a belief in a creator God. As well as other local religions involve the belief in ancestral, sprits offering of sacrifices to symbolism the respect for the dead and proper relationships for the living. Mbandwa is an act of meditation to search further sprits in their world on behalf of the living.
Uganda has a number of lslam, christiians and African traditional religions. The Uganda Muslims always travel to Mecca as pilgrimages to those who can. The African traditional societies tend to establish and build shrines for the small goods and spirits in their world that keep roaming.
Death after life
During the African traditional society death would be interpreted as a cause of witchcraft. Disease or any kind of death was not considered as a true cause of death. During the burial ceremony the deceased spirit would be called up by a medium to as for the name of the person who could have killed him or her.
Medicine and Health care
There was neglect of government, war and violence in the 1970s and 1980s,measles,gastro enteritis respiratory infections ,malaria, AIDS, anemia, whooping cough, tetanus, this led to half number of deaths and the diseases claimed many lives. Infants lost their lives due to low birth weight, premature birth, and neonatal tetanus. The health centers where served by less than a thousand doctors in 1990s.
The care facilities included maternity clinics, community health centers, aid posts, dispensaries, leprosy centers. Today there is at least a government hospital in every districting the sparsely populated northern districts, people usually travel long distances to receive medical care. Other people who live far and cannot afford modern health they depend on traditional care, women are among the traditional healers in a society.
The major holidays in Uganda are the New years Day that’s 1st of January, liberation day,26th January international women’s Day,8th march, labor Day,1st may, National Heroes day,9th June martyrs day, and 9th October.
The Arts and Humanities
Support for the Arts. Most artists are self –supporting as there is no start of support.small-scale,local initiatives always take place and are difficult to establish sectors because of disruptions caused by long-term political economic decline and conflicts.
Literature is developing at a low stage and this has been held backwards because of the many years of civil wars.
Graphic and performance Arts.
There are performing arts which are associated with different ethnic groups.
The state of the physical and social sciences
The physical and social sciences are under-developed as a result of civil instability, conflict and development of national reconstruction. Makerere university till late is in operation expatriate staff, once a backbone of teaching staff. There is little research that is undertaking, although there is lack of book, computers, journal books and many more.